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饲料中油脂的利用方法和饲喂效果

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发表于 2006-7-29 11:18:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">在饲料中添加油脂,已经成为提高动物生产性能的重要措施之一。融点在<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="38" unitname="℃"><span lang="EN-US">38</span><span style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">℃</span></chmetcnv>(或<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="40" unitname="℃"><span lang="EN-US">40</span><span style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">℃</span></chmetcnv>)以上的称为脂,如猪脂、羊脂等;融点在<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="38" unitname="℃"><span lang="EN-US">38</span><span style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">℃</span></chmetcnv>以下的称为油。饲料中添加油脂,容易被猪禽利用,节省大量谷物饲料;可以改善饲料的适口性,提高日增重;在夏季可有效减少热应激损失,在冬季则可增加御寒能力。</span></p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;"><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 21pt; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">添加比例与效果<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、仔猪:乳猪添加日粮的<span lang="EN-US">5%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">10%</span>,可显著提高增长速度。断奶仔猪日粮添加<span lang="EN-US">5%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">6%</span>的油脂,能使断奶仔猪增重提高<span lang="EN-US">5%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">10%</span>,每公斤增重的饲料消耗降低<span lang="EN-US">7%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">15%</span>。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">2</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、生长育肥猪:根据试验:中猪(<span lang="EN-US">35</span>~<span lang="EN-US">60</span>公斤)添加<span lang="EN-US">1%</span>的油脂便可收到吸附粉尘,减少浪费,改进脂溶性维生素的吸收等效果。育肥猪体重达<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="45" unitname="公斤"><span lang="EN-US">45</span>公斤</chmetcnv>以上,添加油脂不能超过<span lang="EN-US">5%</span>,否则易导致肥胖。添加植物性脂肪,不能超过<span lang="EN-US">1.5%</span>,否则会导致胴体软化。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">3</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、母猪:怀孕母猪饲料中添加油脂应在临产前<span lang="EN-US">2</span>~<span lang="EN-US">3</span>周,在日粮中添加适量油脂,不必担心乳汁过稠而引起仔猪下痢。却能有效地促进胎儿生长,提高初生重,并可产出更均匀更健康活泼的仔猪。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 在哺乳阶段添加油脂,则可显著提高乳脂率和乳脂中油酸的含量,可使断奶窝重提高<span lang="EN-US">6%</span>。高能日粮最重要的是缩短了断奶后发情时间,从而显著提高了母猪整体生产效能。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">妊娠<span lang="EN-US">——</span>哺乳母猪的油脂添加量,一般可占日粮的<span lang="EN-US">5%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">10%</span>或<span lang="EN-US">10%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">15%</span>。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">4</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、肉鸡:我国在肉用仔鸡日粮中添加油脂已逐渐得到重视。一般添加油脂量为日粮的<span lang="EN-US">10%</span>左右。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">5</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、蛋鸡:在蛋鸡日粮中添加<span lang="EN-US">6%</span>的油脂,其产蛋率比对照组的<span lang="EN-US">70.69%</span>提高到<span lang="EN-US">76.20%</span>;耗料比从<span lang="EN-US">1</span></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">∶</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">2.79</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">下降到<span lang="EN-US">1</span></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">∶</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">2.43</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">,蛋重从<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="60.5" unitname="克"><span lang="EN-US">60.5</span>克</chmetcnv>增加到<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="61.5" unitname="克"><span lang="EN-US">61.5</span>克</chmetcnv>,平均每日每只产蛋量从<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="42.57" unitname="克"><span lang="EN-US">42.57</span>克</chmetcnv>增加到<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="46.9" unitname="克"><span lang="EN-US">46.90</span>克</chmetcnv>。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">6</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、火鸡:在火鸡以玉米为基础的日粮中添加油脂提高了<span lang="EN-US">140</span>日龄公鸡的增重。添加量一般占日粮的<span lang="EN-US">8%</span>左右。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">添加工艺<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">动物油脂添加工艺分为加热、计量、加压和喷油等四道工序。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、加热:用<span lang="EN-US">3</span>千瓦的电热器插入油桶进行预热,使动物油脂由固态转为液态,每桶约需<span lang="EN-US">1</span>小时左右,油温达<span lang="EN-US">50</span>~<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="70" unitname="℃"><span lang="EN-US">70</span><span style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">℃</span></chmetcnv>。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">2</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、人工计量:要求准确,将计量后的油脂倒入带有活塞的油位计的定量桶内,<span lang="EN-US">1</span>次计量多次使用。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">3</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、加压:热油通过<span lang="EN-US">1.5BA——6</span>型油泵,压力为<span lang="EN-US">1.7</span>公斤平方厘米,压入喷油缸内。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">4</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、喷油:两根喷油管直接插入混合机两侧。喷油孔直径为<chmetcnv wst="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="1.5" unitname="毫米"><span lang="EN-US">1.5</span>毫米</chmetcnv>,共计<span lang="EN-US">150</span>个,同时喷油,其总喷油面积为<span lang="EN-US">265</span>平方毫米。泵出口面积与喷油孔面积之比为<span lang="EN-US">3.84</span></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">∶</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">,以便提高喷油强度,喷油时间为<span lang="EN-US">30</span>秒。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">注意事项<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、控制添加数量,不是越多越好。一般幼禽适当多添加,猪禽育肥后期少添加;高度培育的现代品种应多添加,本地品种可少添加。以谷物饲料为主的饲粮,很难使高产猪禽摄入足够的能量,因此,添加油脂是必要的。最好各养猪场和养禽场做小批试验,根据试验结果,定出添加比例。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">2</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、保证油脂质量。必须没有异味。防止掺杂、氧化、变性、发霉、有毒和受污染等。需要添加适量的抗氧化剂防止酸败。常用的油脂抗氧化剂有<span lang="EN-US">BHT</span>(二丁基羟基甲苯)或<span lang="EN-US">BHA</span>(丁羟基茴香醚),两者常合用,常用浓度为<span lang="EN-US">0.005%</span>~<span lang="EN-US">0.02%</span>。但不能用乙氧基喹。因为乙氧基喹在活性氧法测定中,在起氧化作用之前就挥发掉了。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">3</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、要注意能量比。在添加油脂时要相应增加蛋白质与氨基酸的供给,防止因添加油脂,使蛋白质与氨基酸缺乏。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">4</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;">、添加油脂后,在饲料中必须提高维生素<span lang="EN-US">B12</span>和维生素<span lang="EN-US">C</span>供应量,便于脂肪的吸收利用和提高饲料利用率。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p><br/><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体;"><span lang="EN-US">5</span>、添加油脂必须循序渐进,由少到多,逐步达到设计全量。</span><span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span><span></span></p><span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span>
发表于 2006-8-4 19:47:00 | 显示全部楼层
<p><font color="#ff0000">博士 你辛苦了!</font></p>[em01]
发表于 2006-7-31 10:20:00 | 显示全部楼层
<p>张博士:</p><p>你好,能帮我收集一下水产饲料中能量饲料的应用技术资料.十分感谢.<a href="mailto:luoxinshuang@yahoo.com.cn">luoxinshuang@yahoo.com.cn</a></p>
 楼主| 发表于 2006-7-31 16:03:00 | 显示全部楼层
luorabbit,你好,我会发表一些有关水产能量使用的文章,请观注新的发贴。

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